Sätze im Deutschen – Struktur, Erklärungen und Beispiele
German Sentences – Summary
Die einzelnen Satzglieder stehen in einer bestimmten Reihenfolge.
- Ein Hauptsatz ist ein vollständiger, unabhängiger Satz.
- Das konjugierte Verb steht immer an der zweiten Position
- Das Subjekt steht meistens an der ersten Position.
- Durch eine Umstellung kann das Subjekt auch an die dritte Position gestellt werden.
Bei solchen Umstellungen können bestimmte andere Satzglieder an der ersten Position stehen, beispielsweise:
- Adverbiale Ortsangaben: “Auf der Rennbahn laufen die Hunde.”
- Adverbiale Zeitangaben: “Gestern liefen die Hunde auf der Rennbahn.”
- Objekte im 3. oder 4. Fall: “Dem Hund schmeckt das Futter.”
- Pronomen im 3. oder 4. Fall: “Ihm der verletzte Fuß.”
Steht das Verb an der ersten Position, dann wird aus einem Behauptungssatz ein Fragesatz. In vielen Fragesätzen können auch sogenannte W-Wörter vorkommen:
- “Was essen die Hunde?”
- “Wer rennt so schnell?”
- “Wo finden Hunderennen statt?”
- “Wie wird hier gewettet?”
Bei negativen Sätzen steht das Negationspartikel “nicht” meistens am Ende des Satzes bzw. immer vor einem zweiten Teil des Prädikats.
- “Die Hunde laufen nicht.”
- “Die Hunde laufen nicht um die Wette.”
- “Die Hunde sind nicht gerannt.”
- “Wettest du nicht?”
- “Wettest du nicht auf den Hund?”
So, how was your day so far? Quite good, you say? Well, there is an easy way to change that. Maybe you will say that you are a strong person, emotionally stable. But believe me, at the end of this article, you will understand me. You will look back on this text and there will be tears and a smile on your face. Exactly, a smile. Because you have done it.
So, let’s name the monster. This article will be about German sentences. Of course there are rules about word order, but, you know, there are also some exceptions. Well, many exceptions to be honest.
Nevertheless, you will to master this beautiful language is stronger than this. And hopefully I can help you to understand the basic of German sentences in this article. So, to make it somehow easier, I will structure this article into four chapters, which in a whole, will give a complete idea of German Sentences.
Conjuctions which Influence Word Order
Konjunktionen, die die Satzstellung beeinflussen
So, we have reached the first point in this article, the conjunctions which change the word order in German sentences. Of course, you all know that the regular word order in German sentences is the following.
- Subject – Verb – Object.
Now, there are conjunctions which change this word order. And, of course, there are some, which don’t change anything. First, the ones which don’t influence the word order in German sentences are called “Coordinating Conjunctions”. Here you have some examples.
So, the conjunction which influence the word order are called “Subordinating Conjunctions”. In the following, I will show you another table with some examples for this kind of conjunctions.
|Während||During / While|
Now, let’s illustrate what I mean when I say that these conjunctions change the word order. So, as a general rule you can say, that the verb gets moved to the end of the clause, when a subordinate conjunction is used.
- Coordinate Conjunction: “Aber er ist ein fauler Mann.”
– But he is a lazy man.
- Subordinate Conjunction: “Ich mag ihn nicht, weil er ein fauler Mann ist.” – I don’t like him because he is a lazy man.
Although this case might seem rather complicated, you will master it with some practice. Let’s come to the next point, the position of the verb at the end of a German sentence.
The Position of the Verb in a German Sentence
Die Position eines Verbs in einem deutschen Satz
So, let’s come to the next topic of this article, the position of a verb in a German sentence. Well, in some cases, the verb of a sentence simply has to be at the end of the sentence. Luckily, there are some rules determining these cases. Now, we will have a look on the two most important ones. By the way, there is golden rule you should always remember: The verb in a German main sentence is always at the second position.
For sure, all of you know what modal verbs in German are. If this is not the case, just click on this link above and you will enter the beautiful world of modal verbs in German. Nevertheless, let’s state that modal verbs can be described as “auxiliary verbs”. The most common ones are…
- “müssen” – must
- “sollen” – shall
- “möchten” – like
- “können” – can
So, in German sentences in the verb always goes to the end of a sentence, if a modal verb is also used in this phrase. Maybe this might seem rather strange to you – but hey, it is German. So stop asking questions.
Well, in this case, we also have a clear rule. In a relative clause, the verb also goes to the end of the sentence. Unfortunately, it gets a bit more complicated. If there are two verbs in a relative cause, the main verb also goes to the end, while the auxiliary verbs stays on its position. Yes, you have survived it – there are no more rules in this case. So, let’s see some examples.
- “Das Geschenk, das ich meiner Mutter gekauft habe, ist nicht mehr in meinem Zimmer!” – The present I’ve bought for my mother is not in my room anymore.
The Position of Adverbs in German Sentences
Die Position von Adverben in Deutschen Sätzen
Well, you are lucky – I have more rules for you. They are all about one topic, the inversion of German sentences. So, don’t let us lose too much time – here is the most important rule that will tell you when you have to invert a German sentence.
Any time a temporal adverb or prepositional phrase comes at the beginning of the sentence, the verb has to come in the second position.
Here are some examples that illustrate what this actually means.
- “Morgen fängt die Schule an” – Tomorrow, school will start.
- “1939 fing der zweite Weltkrieg an” – In 1939, second world war began.
Unfortunately, there are some more difficult parts. Sometimes, you put the object at the beginning of the sentence and invert it to add emphasis on the object. For example…
- Seine Wohnung habe ich nie gemocht – Er hat einfach zu viele Katzen!
– I never likes his apartment – he simply has too many cats!
TeKaMoLo – When, How, Where and Why in German Sentences
Without a doubt “TeKaMoLo” plays an important role in the German sentences. This rule helps us to identify the word order in a sentence.
TeKaMoLo – How it works
- TEMPORAL – “Wann war es?” – (When was it?)
- KAUSAL – “Warum war es?” – (Why was it?)
- MODAL – “Wie war es?” – (How was it?)
- LOCAL – “Wo war es?” – (Where was it?)
TeKaMoLo – In action
In this example we see all important parts of TeKaMoLo:
“Ich habe gestern wegen dem Besuch meiner Großeltern schnell zu Hause einen Kuchen gebacken.”
– (I have baken yesterday fast a cake at home because of the visit of my grandparents.)
- TEMPORAL: “gestern”
- KAUSAL: “wegen dem Besuch meiner Großeltern”
- MODAL: “schnell”
- LOCAL: “zu Hause”
There is no fix rule for TeKaMoLo, it is only a guidance. You can also be here a little bit flexible. For example, if you want to put the place as more important, then you can also put it in front of the verb.
The Inversion of German Sentences
Die Inversion von Sätzen im Deutschen
Finally, we have come to the last topic of this article about German sentences. For sure, you all remember the basic word order for German sentences:
- Subject – Verb – Indirect Object – Direct Object
Furthermore, you have to order the information you transmit in this sentence. Here, the order should be the following
- Time – Manner – Place
So, applying these rules to adverbs, you simply have to keep in mind that adverbs also have to follow this order. Finally, we will have a look on a example sentence.
- “Vater ist heute nach Hause gekommen und sagte, dass er Pizza mitgebracht hat.
Ich musste mich beeilen, weil ich noch ein Stück davon abhaben wollte!”
– Today, dad came home and said that he brought pizza.
I had to hurry because I still wanted a slide of it.
Well, let’s analyze this last (I promise, the last one) example sentence. The modal verb “wollte” is at the end of the sentence as “weil” is this type of conjunction. Here, “Dass” does the same thing, moving “hat” to after “mitgebracht”.
So, I think that is enough to get the basic of German sentences. Luckily, there are some really useful rules that help you to understand this rather complicated topic. Always keep practicing your vocabulary, keep in mind the rules and try to remember exceptions. As a consequence, German might get a lot easier than you might think. And if not, have a look on this book of Mark Twain with the title “The Awful German Language”. Here, you can find someone sharing your pain, so maybe it will hurt less.
The Grammatical Cases in German
Die Fälle im Deutschen
As a last but not lease important part of German Sentences, we should mention the grammatical cases. Especially for English speakers that might be difficult, as they do not appear like this in the English language. So, in German we have the nominative, genitive, dative and accusative case.
Well, this article would become too long if we would talk about every single one in detail. So, in case you want to know more about every single case, just have a click on the corresponding one and you will be redirected to the article about it.