The German Imperative
Der Imperativ im Deutschen
German Imperative – Summary
Bildung des Imperativs
1./3. Person Plural (“wir”/”Sie”)
Den Imperativ für “Sie” und “wir” bilden wir mit dem Verb im Infinitiv + “Sie” oder “wir”. Beim Verb sein fügen wir zusätzlich ein “e” ein.
- “Reden Sie!”
- “Reden wir!”
2. Person Plural (“ihr”)
Der Imperativ für ihr ist die finite Verbform der 2. Person Plural, aber ohne das Pronomen.
3. Person Singular (“du”)
Den Imperativ für “du” bilden wir normalerweise, indem wir beim Infinitiv die Endung “en” entfernen. In der gehobenen Sprache hängen wir bei vielen Verben oft noch ein e an, in der Umgangssprache lassen wir es meistens weg.
Besonderheiten beim Imperativ für 2. Person Singular:
Die Stammvokaländerung von “e” zu “i”/”ie” gilt auch für den Imperativ. In diesem Fall verwenden wir aber nie das Imperativ “-e”.
- “Lies!” (nicht:
Die Stammvokaländerung von “a” zu “ä” gilt nicht für den Imperativ.
- “Fahr!” (aber: ich fahre, du fährst)
Endet der Präsensstamm auf “d”/”t”, hängen wir immer “e” an.
- “Warte!” (nicht:
Endet der Präsensstamm auf Konsonant + “m”/”n”, hängen wir immer “e” an. Dies gilt aber nicht, wenn dieser Konsonant ein “m, n, l, r” oder “h” (aber nicht “ch”) ist.
- “Atme!/Zeichne!” aber: “Schwimm(e)!/Lern(e)!”
Endet das Verb auf “eln”/”ern”, hängen wir im Normalfall “e” an. In der Umgangssprache wird es allerdings häufig weggelassen. Auch das “e” von “eln”/”ern” kann wegfallen.
- “Feiere!/Feire!/Feier! Angele!/Angle!/Angel!”
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Well – *cough* – I know that German might not be the language of love. Okay, maybe it can sound a little bit rude sometimes. Others might even say that it sounds horrible. And there are these ignorant people that only know the sound of German from speeches of Nazis out of documentaries on TV.
Nevertheless, on the one hand side, German CAN be beautiful! Well, on the other hand side, you have to consider that German is simply a rather direct language. So, where English-speaking people wouldn’t use the imperative because it might sound rude, Germans use it to express things more directly.
So, as you have chosen this article on language-easy.org, I think you’d like to enter into this part of German grammar. In the following, we will try to clear up in which contexts you can use the German imperative. After that, we will define what it actually is and have a detailed look at its usage.
And now… VERLIEREN SIE KEINE ZEIT! … We have a lot of work to do!
When to Use the German Imperative
So, let’s just start right ahead with the basics of German Imperative. Well, first of all we should talk about when you actually should use the German imperative. Obviously, it depends on the context. In the following, we will list some situations where the usage of German imperative is absolutely right.
- Offering encouragement
Exactly, for offering encouragement, you can use the German imperative. “Mach das!” (Do it!) is a quite usual way to express your encouragement for something.
- Giving instructions
Well, whether you describe the way to the restaurant or you tell the guy who goes housekeeping for you in your vacation what to do… The German imperative is just a short and precise way of expressing your instructions.
- Responding to Rudeness, Aggression or Generally Anti-Social Behavior
Of course, there are also idiots in Germany, as in every country of this world. So, just use the imperative to express that you don’t agree with the rude behavior or just to tell someone to go away. “Hau ab!” (Go away!) would be a good example for that.
Now, as we have talked about the context is which you can use the German imperative, let’s go the most important parts of this article and look at its definition and usage.
Definition and Usage of German Imperative
Definition und Anwendung des Imperativs im Deutschen
Well, first of all we should clear up what the German imperative actually is. So, the German imperative mood expresses requests and commands.
So, you can apply this order someone to do something.
- “Fahren Sie mich nach Hause!” – Drive me home!
Or, you can also express order including yourself.
- “Gehen wir!” – Let’s go!
You can use this mood to talk to people in the second person singular and plural and, of course, polite form and the first person plural.
Please, keep in mind that the German imperative mood is quite common in the German language. Well, that’s because of its ‘attributes’ – it’s simply the most efficient way to express something. Exactly, that’s very German. Although this may sound rude to you sometimes, it is not meant like that. And,p in case you want to be more polite, just add “bitte” (please).
The Conjugation of German Imperative
Die Konjugation des Imperativs im Deutschen
So, let’s come to the central aspect of this article about German imperative. Well, it’s conjugation is actually not too difficult. Unfortunately, there are some exceptions. In the following we will have a closer look at each one of them.
The conjugation of the German imperative in the polite form “Sie”
So, this first form of the German imperative is quite easy to form. Well, we just use the infinitive form + “Sie”. Like we know, we use the “Sie” always if we want to show respect. Also, the pluralform works the same.
- “Gehen Sie nach Hause!” (Go home!)
- “Fahren Sie nicht zu schnell!” (Do not drive to fast!)
- “Machen Sie die Hausaufgabe!” (Do your homework!)
The conjugation of the German imperative in the “du”
Unfortunately this form is a little bit more difficult. Actually, we form the imperative of “du” by removing the ending ‘-en’ from the infinitive. But, in elevated language we often add an ‘-e’ to many verbs, but in colloquial speech we generally leave it off.
- “Geh nach Hause!” (Go home!)
- “Fahr nicht zu schnell!” (Do not drive to fast!)
- “Mach deine Hausaufaben!” (Do your homework!)
The German imperative with “ihr”
Well, the imperative for “ihr” is the finite verb form of the 2nd person plural, but without the pronoun. So, here is an example:
- “Seid ehrlich!” (Be honest!)
- “Geht nach Hause!” (Go home!)
- “Fahrt nicht zu schnell!” (Do not drive to fast!)
- “Macht das Frühstück!” (Prepair the breakfast)
The Irregular Conjugation of German Imperative Mood
Well, as I have already told you, there are some exceptions in the context of German imperative. So, I think we should just do a short list all the most important ones to get a good overview.
- First, there is no vowel change from ‘a’ to ‘ä’ in the German imperative. “Lies die Zeitung bitte fertig!” (not “lese”)
- Second, in case the stem of the present tense form end with ‘d’ or ‘t’, just add ‘e’. Well, an example would be: “Warte!” (Wait!)
- Third, if the verb end in ‘ein’ or ‘ern’, we always should add an ‘e’. “Bedauere das bitte nicht!”
- Fourth and last, the root vowel change from ‘e’ to ‘i/ie’ also happens in the imperative; in this case, however, we never add the imperative ‘-e’ ending.
Some Last Advice
Einige letzte Ratschläge
Hopefully, this article was of some use for you. So, German imperative mood is not really difficult, as long as you keep on practicing! So, your credo should always be…
Of course, you will have to do the translation work. By the way, in case you want to go deeper into future tenses, have a look at this excellent article on Wikipedia. In the following you will see some phrases that you should complete with the correct terms. Once you have filled all the gaps, just click on the “correct” button and you can see your errors and the correct results. Good luck and… auf Wiedersehen!